**Explanation:** Speed is a scalar quantity as it only has magnitude and no direction. Displacement, velocity, and acceleration are vector quantities, meaning they have both magnitude and direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement, being a measure of the shortest distance between the initial and final positions of a point, is measured in meters in the International System of Units (SI).

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as total distance divided by total time. So, 60 km / 2 h = 30 km/h.

**Explanation:** Uniform motion means traveling with constant speed in a straight line. A constant speed of 60 km/h fits this description.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. If a car is moving with constant velocity, its velocity is not changing, hence the acceleration is zero.

**Explanation:** The slope of a displacement-time graph represents velocity, which is the rate of change of displacement with respect to time.

**Explanation:** In uniform motion, a body covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, indicating a constant speed and direction.

**Explanation:** If a body is moving with a constant velocity, its acceleration is zero because there is no change in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** The velocity of the car can be calculated using the formula v = u + at. Here, u (initial velocity) = 0, a (acceleration) = 2 m/s², and t (time) = 5 s. So, v = 0 + (2 × 5) = 10 m/s.

**Explanation:** Total distance covered = (90 km/h × 2 h) + (60 km/h × 3 h) = 180 km + 180 km = 360 km. Total time taken = 2 h + 3 h = 5 h. Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 360 km / 5 h = 72 km/h.

**Explanation:** Motion is defined as the change in position of an object with respect to time. It involves the movement of the object from one place to another.

**Explanation:** To describe the motion of an object, we need to know its position at different times. This allows us to determine how the object is moving.

**Explanation:** Rest and motion are relative concepts because an object’s state of rest or motion depends on the observer’s frame of reference.

**Explanation:** A reference frame is a coordinate system or viewpoint that is used to describe the position, orientation, and motion of an object. It provides a basis for measuring the motion of objects.

**Explanation:** Rectilinear motion is the type of motion in which an object moves along a straight path. It is also known as linear motion.

**Explanation:** When an object moves along a curved path under the influence of gravity, it exhibits projectile motion. This type of motion is common in objects that are thrown or launched into the air.

**Explanation:** Speed is the physical quantity used to describe how fast an object is moving. It is the rate at which an object covers distance and is a scalar quantity.

**Explanation:** Velocity is a vector quantity that includes both magnitude (speed) and direction, whereas speed is a scalar quantity that only includes magnitude.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is the term used to describe the rate of change of velocity of an object. It indicates how quickly the velocity of an object is changing over time.

**Explanation:** If an object is moving with a constant speed in a straight line, its velocity is not changing, so its acceleration is zero. Acceleration occurs only when there is a change in the velocity.

**Explanation:** Translational motion occurs when an object moves from one location to another without rotating. This type of motion is characterized by a change in the position of the object.

**Explanation:** A spinning top exhibits rotational motion as it spins around its own axis. Rotational motion involves an object rotating around a fixed point or axis.

**Explanation:** Oscillatory motion occurs when an object moves back and forth around a fixed point. A pendulum swinging back and forth is a classic example of oscillatory motion.

**Explanation:** As the Earth orbits around the Sun, it exhibits circular motion. This is because its path forms a nearly circular trajectory around the Sun.

**Explanation:** A ceiling fan exhibits rotational motion as its blades rotate around the central axis of the fan. This type of motion is characterized by an object rotating around a fixed point or axis.

**Explanation:** A car driving down the street exhibits translational motion, as it moves from one location to another without rotating around an axis.

**Explanation:** Oscillatory motion describes repetitive motion back and forth around a central position, such as the motion of a pendulum or a vibrating string.

**Explanation:** A child on a swing exhibits oscillatory motion, as the swing moves back and forth around a central point.

**Explanation:** A Ferris wheel exhibits rotational motion as it rotates around its central axis, allowing the seats to move in a circular path.

**Explanation:** The vibration of a guitar string when plucked is an example of oscillatory motion, as the string moves back and forth around its resting position.

**Explanation:** A train moving along a track exhibits translational motion because it changes its position from one point to another along the track without rotating around its own axis.

**Explanation:** When a gymnast performs flips and twists in the air, they are rotating around their center of mass, demonstrating rotational motion.

**Explanation:** A spring-mass system exhibits oscillatory motion when displaced from its equilibrium position and released, as it moves back and forth around the equilibrium point.

**Explanation:** The hands of a clock exhibit rotational motion as they rotate around the central pivot point of the clock.

**Explanation:** A grandfather clock’s pendulum exhibits oscillatory motion as it swings back and forth around its resting position.

**Explanation:** A particle moving in a circular path with a constant speed is undergoing uniform circular motion, characterized by constant speed along a circular trajectory.

**Explanation:** The rotor of an electric motor exhibits rotational motion as it spins around its axis to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.

**Explanation:** A child rocking in a rocking chair exhibits oscillatory motion as the chair moves back and forth around a central pivot point.

**Explanation:** A record player’s turntable exhibits rotational motion as it spins the record around a central axis, allowing the needle to play the music.

**Explanation:** The piston in an internal combustion engine exhibits translational motion as it moves up and down in a straight line within the cylinder.

**Explanation:** A frame of reference is a coordinate system or viewpoint that is used to measure and describe the position, orientation, and motion of objects.

**Explanation:** The concept of a frame of reference is important because it provides a context for measuring and describing the motion of objects relative to a specific point or coordinate system.

**Explanation:** An inertial frame of reference is one in which objects are either at rest or move at constant velocity. A stationary train platform is an example of an inertial frame of reference.

**Explanation:** Non-inertial frames of reference are those that are accelerating or rotating. In these frames, fictitious forces, such as centrifugal and Coriolis forces, need to be considered.

**Explanation:** An elevator moving with constant acceleration is an example of a non-inertial frame of reference because it involves acceleration.

**Explanation:** The choice of frame of reference affects the description of motion by changing how the speed and direction of objects are perceived relative to the observer’s viewpoint.

**Explanation:** In an inertial frame of reference, objects obey Newton’s first law of motion, which states that an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.

**Explanation:** According to an observer inside the car, the ball will land back in your hand because the ball shares the car’s forward motion and there is no relative motion between you and the ball in the horizontal direction.

**Explanation:** An observer in a non-inertial frame of reference perceives fictitious forces, such as centrifugal and Coriolis forces, which are not present in an inertial frame of reference.

**Explanation:** A geocentric frame of reference is centered on the Earth. It is a viewpoint in which the Earth is considered the center of the universe or the reference point for observing motion.

**Explanation:** An object is said to be at rest if it does not change its position relative to its surroundings over time.

**Explanation:** Motion is defined as a change in the position of an object with respect to a frame of reference over time.

**Explanation:** An object can be at rest in one frame of reference and in motion in another. For example, a passenger in a moving car is at rest relative to the car but in motion relative to the ground.

**Explanation:** A book lying on a table is an example of an object at rest because it is not changing its position relative to the table.

**Explanation:** The state of motion of an object is relative to the observer’s frame of reference. Different observers may perceive different states of motion for the same object depending on their relative positions and velocities.

**Explanation:** Motion is the term used to describe the change in position of an object over time relative to a reference point or frame of reference.

**Explanation:** An object is said to be in uniform motion if it covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, indicating a constant speed and direction.

**Explanation:** Non-uniform motion occurs when an object’s speed or direction changes over time. A cyclist slowing down to stop is an example of non-uniform motion because the speed is decreasing.

**Explanation:** An object that remains at the same position relative to a fixed point is said to be at rest because it does not change its position over time.

**Explanation:** A passenger sitting in a moving train is an example of motion relative to a frame of reference. The passenger is at rest relative to the train but in motion relative to the ground outside.

**Explanation:** One-dimensional motion refers to motion that occurs along a single axis or in a straight line, such as a car moving along a straight road.

**Explanation:** Two-dimensional motion occurs in a plane, involving two coordinates (e.g., horizontal and vertical). A ball thrown horizontally exhibits two-dimensional motion as it moves both horizontally and vertically.

**Explanation:** Three-dimensional motion involves movement in all three spatial dimensions (length, width, and height). A plane flying from one city to another exemplifies three-dimensional motion as it moves through air in all three dimensions.

**Explanation:** In one-dimensional motion, displacement and velocity are sufficient to fully describe the motion of an object along a straight line.

**Explanation:** The motion of a train along a straight track is an example of one-dimensional motion because it occurs along a single, straight path.

**Explanation:** Vectors and trigonometry are essential mathematical tools for analyzing two-dimensional motion, as they help resolve motion into perpendicular components.

**Explanation:** Three-dimensional motion requires three spatial coordinates (x, y, z) to describe the position and movement of an object in space.

**Explanation:** A projectile launched at an angle to the horizontal exhibits two-dimensional motion as it moves in both the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously.

**Explanation:** Two-dimensional motion can involve movement along a curved path within a plane, requiring two coordinates to describe the motion.

**Explanation:** In three-dimensional motion, the complexity arises from the need to consider an additional spatial dimension (z-axis) beyond the two dimensions (x and y) considered in two-dimensional motion.

**Explanation:** The displacement vector is essential to describe the motion of an object in three-dimensional space as it gives both the magnitude and direction of the object’s movement.

**Explanation:** One-dimensional motion can be analyzed using only a single coordinate axis because it occurs along a straight line, requiring only one dimension to describe its position.

**Explanation:** A football kicked at an angle exhibits two-dimensional motion as it moves both horizontally and vertically, following a curved trajectory.

**Explanation:** The motion of an object in two dimensions is typically represented using vectors in a plane, which allows for the description of both magnitude and direction in two perpendicular directions.

**Explanation:** Even though the car is driving up a hill, if it is moving in a straight line, it is considered one-dimensional motion because it occurs along a single axis.

**Explanation:** In three-dimensional motion, the path of an object can be a spiral or a complex path that extends in all three spatial dimensions.

**Explanation:** A train moving on a straight track is an example of one-dimensional motion as it moves along a single, straight path.

**Explanation:** The displacement vector is used to describe the change in position in two-dimensional motion, providing both the magnitude and direction of the change.

**Explanation:** A roller coaster moving on a track with loops and turns exemplifies three-dimensional motion as it involves movement in all three spatial dimensions.

**Explanation:** In two-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, such as projectile motion under gravity, the object’s path is typically a parabolic trajectory.

**Explanation:** Position refers to the location of an object at a particular point in time, usually specified in relation to a reference point or coordinate system.

**Explanation:** In a one-dimensional coordinate system, the position of an object is typically represented by a single coordinate value, indicating its location along the axis.

**Explanation:** The position of an object in a two-dimensional plane is typically represented by two coordinates (x, y), indicating its location along the horizontal and vertical axes.

**Explanation:** The reference point from which the position of an object is measured is called the origin. It serves as the fixed point of reference for the coordinate system.

**Explanation:** Position is always measured relative to a fixed point or origin. It indicates where an object is located with respect to this reference point.

**Explanation:** In three-dimensional space, the position of an object is described by three coordinates (x, y, z), indicating its location along the three spatial dimensions.

**Explanation:** Displacement describes the change in position of an object over time, taking into account the direction of the change.

**Explanation:** In a two-dimensional coordinate system, the position (5, -3) represents that the object is 5 units away from the origin along the x-axis and -3 units along the y-axis.

**Explanation:** A force can change an object’s position by causing it to move from one location to another.

**Explanation:** It is important to define a reference point when describing position to provide a basis for comparison, allowing for an accurate and consistent measurement of an object’s location.

**Explanation:** A coordinate system is used in physics to describe the position of objects in space relative to a reference point or origin.

**Explanation:** The polar coordinate system is a common type of coordinate system used in physics, especially for problems involving circular or rotational symmetry.

**Explanation:** In a Cartesian coordinate system, the standard axes used to describe position in three dimensions are the x, y, and z axes.

**Explanation:** The origin of a coordinate system is defined as the point where all coordinates (x, y, z) are zero, serving as the reference point for all other positions.

**Explanation:** The polar coordinate system uses angles and distances from a central point (the origin) to describe the position of points in a plane.

**Explanation:** In a cylindrical coordinate system, the position of a point is described using the coordinates r (radius), θ (angle), and z (height).

**Explanation:** The Cartesian coordinate system uses three perpendicular axes (x, y, and z) to describe the position of points in space.

**Explanation:** In the spherical coordinate system, coordinates are represented by r (radius), θ (polar angle), and φ (azimuthal angle).

**Explanation:** The cylindrical coordinate system is most suitable for problems involving rotational symmetry around a central axis, as it uses radius, angle, and height to describe positions.

**Explanation:** The choice of coordinate system is important in solving physics problems because it can simplify or complicate the equations involved, making the problem easier or harder to solve.

**Explanation:** Path length refers to the total length of the path taken by an object, which may include retracing, whereas distance traveled is the actual length of the path covered without retracing.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the change in position of an object from its initial to its final position. If the object returns to its starting point, its displacement is zero.

**Explanation:** Distance traveled refers to the total length of the path actually covered by an object, irrespective of its direction or retracing of the path.

**Explanation:** If an object moves in a straight line away from its starting point and does not retrace its path, the path length and distance traveled will be equal.

**Explanation:** Path length is typically calculated by multiplying the speed (or magnitude of velocity) by the total time over which the object moves.

**Explanation:** Speed is a scalar quantity that represents how fast an object is moving over a distance, without regard to direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the change in position of an object from its initial to its final position. If the object returns to its starting point along the same path, its displacement is zero.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction between an object’s initial and final positions. It considers only the initial and final positions, not the actual path taken.

**Explanation:** The relationship between distance traveled and path length depends on the shape of the path. In straight-line motion, they can be equal, but in curved or zigzag paths, they can differ.

**Explanation:** Distance traveled refers to the total length of the actual path an object takes, irrespective of its direction or retracing of the path.

**Explanation:** Scalar quantities have magnitude (numerical value) but no direction associated with them. Examples include mass, speed, and temperature.

**Explanation:** Vector quantities have both magnitude (numerical value) and direction associated with them. Examples include displacement, velocity, and force.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction from the initial to the final position. In this case, the object ends up 2 meters south of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Velocity is a vector quantity because it has both magnitude (speed) and direction (the direction of motion).

**Explanation:** The magnitude of a vector quantity is a scalar quantity, which means it has only numerical value and no direction.

**Explanation:** Temperature is a scalar quantity because it has magnitude (degree value) but no direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the difference between the final and initial positions in a straight line. Here, the object ends up 5 meters east of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Vector quantities, such as displacement or velocity, are represented by directed line segments indicating both magnitude and direction.

**Explanation:** The magnitude of a vector is the length (or size) of the vector quantity, indicating its numerical value without considering its direction.

**Explanation:** Scalar quantities have magnitude (numerical value) but do not have direction associated with them.

**Explanation:** Displacement in physics refers to the change in position of an object from its initial to its final position. It is a vector quantity.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction from the initial to the final position of an object. Distance traveled includes the total path length taken by the object.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the difference between the final and initial positions in a straight line. Here, the object ends up 5 meters east of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Displacement is a vector quantity because it has both magnitude (the numerical value of the straight-line distance) and direction (from initial to final position).

**Explanation:** Displacement is measured in meters (m), which is the SI unit of length.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the shortest distance and direction from an object’s initial to its final position, regardless of the path taken.

**Explanation:** Displacement is zero when an object returns to its starting point after moving back and forth along the same straight line.

**Explanation:** Displacement provides information about both the distance and direction an object has moved from its initial to its final position.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the difference between the final and initial positions in a straight line. Here, the object ends up 2 meters north of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Displacement is related to distance because both quantities involve measuring the extent of movement. However, displacement specifically refers to the change in position, while distance refers to the total path length traveled.

**Explanation:** Distance is a scalar quantity that measures the total path length traveled, whereas displacement is a vector quantity that measures the change in position from the initial to the final point.

**Explanation:** Distance considers the total path length taken by an object, including any retracing or changes in direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction from the initial to the final position. Here, the object ends up 2 meters north of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Displacement can be positive, negative, or zero, depending on the direction of motion. Distance, on the other hand, is always positive or zero.

**Explanation:** Distance and displacement are equal when an object moves in a straight line away from its starting point without retracing its path.

**Explanation:** Displacement measures the straight-line distance and direction between an object’s initial and final positions.

**Explanation:** Distance represents the total length of the path traveled by an object, including any retracing or changes in direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction from the initial to the final position. Here, the object ends up 2 meters east of its starting point.

**Explanation:** Displacement is the straight-line distance and direction from an object’s initial to its final position, representing the shortest path between the two points.

**Explanation:** Distance represents the total length of the actual path traveled by an object, which is always greater than or equal to its displacement. Displacement, on the other hand, is the straight-line distance and direction between the initial and final positions.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed gives the overall rate of motion over a distance, while instantaneous speed measures the speed at a particular moment in time.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 120 km / 2 hours = 60 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average speed measures how fast an object moves over a given distance, calculated as total distance divided by total time.

**Explanation:** Average speed is typically measured in kilometers per hour (km/h) in everyday contexts, although the SI unit for speed is meter per second (m/s).

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as total distance divided by total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Convert 5 kilometers to meters (5000 meters) and 25 minutes to seconds (1500 seconds). Average speed = 5000 m / 1500 s = 6 m/s.

**Explanation:** Average speed is defined as the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 30 km / 2 hours = 15 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated by dividing the total distance traveled by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement.

**Explanation:** Average velocity includes direction and is calculated using displacement, while average speed is scalar and is calculated using total distance traveled.

**Explanation:** Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 100 km north / 2 hours = 50 km/h north.

**Explanation:** Velocity is defined as the rate of change of position of an object over a specific interval of time, including both speed and direction.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is typically measured in meters per second (m/s), which is the SI unit of velocity.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement.

**Explanation:** Displacement is calculated as the net change in position (5 meters east – 3 meters west = 2 meters east). Average velocity = Displacement / Time = 2 meters east / 1 second = 2 m/s east.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is defined as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement.

**Explanation:** Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 40 km north / 4 hours = 10 km/h north.

**Explanation:** Velocity is calculated by dividing the total displacement by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including both magnitude and direction.

**Explanation:** Speed is a scalar quantity that represents the magnitude of motion without regard to direction.

**Explanation:** Velocity is a vector quantity that includes both magnitude (speed) and direction of motion.

**Explanation:** Velocity specifies both the speed (magnitude) and direction of motion. If the car is moving north at 60 km/h, then its velocity is 60 km/h north.

**Explanation:** Velocity is a vector quantity that describes the rate of change of position of an object in a specific direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is calculated as the net change in position (20 meters east – 10 meters west = 10 meters west). Average velocity = Displacement / Time = 10 meters west / 2 seconds = 5 m/s west.

**Explanation:** Speed is a scalar quantity that measures the magnitude of motion without consideration of direction.

**Explanation:** A negative velocity indicates that the object is moving in the direction opposite to the chosen positive direction, if direction is specified.

**Explanation:** Since velocity includes both magnitude and direction, and the direction is not specified, the answer is 80 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including direction.

**Explanation:** Velocity is calculated by dividing the total displacement by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including both magnitude and direction.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 240 km / 4 hours = 60 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 50 km / 2.5 hours = 20 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as total distance divided by total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 400 m / 20 s = 20 m/s.

**Explanation:** Average speed measures the rate at which an object moves over a given distance.

**Explanation:** Convert 1.5 kilometers to meters (1500 meters) and 30 minutes to hours (0.5 hours). Average speed = 1500 m / 0.5 h = 3000 m/h = 3 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average speed is calculated as the total distance divided by the total time taken to cover that distance.

**Explanation:** Average speed = Total distance / Total time = 300 km / 5 hours = 60 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement.

**Explanation:** Total displacement = 120 km north – 80 km south = 40 km north. Total time = 2 hours + 1.5 hours = 3.5 hours. Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 40 km / 3.5 hours ≈ 11.43 km/h south.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including direction.

**Explanation:** Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 60 km / 2 hours = 30 km/h.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is calculated as the total displacement divided by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including direction.

**Explanation:** Displacement is calculated as the net change in position (500 meters east – 300 meters west = 200 meters east). Average velocity = Displacement / Time = 200 meters east / 2 seconds = 100 m/s east.

**Explanation:** Velocity is a vector quantity that describes the rate of change of position of an object in a specific direction.

**Explanation:** Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 2 km / 1 hour = 2 km/h north.

**Explanation:** Velocity is calculated by dividing the total displacement by the total time taken to cover that displacement, including both magnitude and direction.

**Explanation:** Average velocity = Total displacement / Total time = 400 km / 8 hours = 50 km/h.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed refers to the speed of an object at a specific moment in time.

**Explanation:** Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken, while instantaneous speed is the speed at a particular instant.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed refers to the speed of an object at any specific moment. If the car is moving at a steady 60 km/h, its instantaneous speed remains 60 km/h at any time during the steady motion.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed is the speed of an object at a precise moment in time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed is determined by measuring the distance an object covers in an infinitesimally small interval of time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed = Distance covered / Time taken = 100 m / 10 s = 10 m/s.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed refers to the speed of an object at an exact moment in time.

**Explanation:** ‘Instantaneous’ means at a specific moment or instant in time.

**Explanation:** The speed of the roller coaster at the precise moment it reaches 100 km/h is its instantaneous speed.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous speed is the speed of an object at a particular instant of time, not averaged over time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity refers to the velocity of an object at a specific moment in time.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is the total displacement divided by the total time taken, while instantaneous velocity is the velocity at a particular instant.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity refers to the velocity of an object at any specific moment. If the car is moving at a steady 50 km/h eastward, its instantaneous velocity remains 50 km/h eastward at any time during the steady motion.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at an exact moment in time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity is determined by measuring the displacement an object covers in an infinitesimally small interval of time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity = Displacement / Time = 200 m / 20 s = 10 m/s north.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity refers to the velocity of an object at an exact moment in time.

**Explanation:** ‘Instantaneous’ means at a specific moment or instant in time.

**Explanation:** The velocity of the ball at the precise moment it reaches its highest point, which is 0 m/s in this case, is its instantaneous velocity.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at a particular instant of time, not averaged over time.

**Explanation:** In a velocity-time graph, the slope represents the acceleration of the object. A steeper slope indicates a greater acceleration, either positive or negative.

**Explanation:** A constant velocity means the velocity-time graph will be a horizontal line parallel to the time axis at the value of 40 km/h.

**Explanation:** A horizontal line on a velocity-time graph represents constant velocity, where the velocity of the object does not change over time.

**Explanation:** Uniform acceleration results in a velocity-time graph that is a straight line sloping upward, indicating increasing velocity over time.

**Explanation:** A constant negative acceleration results in a velocity-time graph that is a straight line sloping downward, indicating decreasing velocity over time.

**Explanation:** The area under a velocity-time graph represents the displacement of the object. It is calculated by finding the area enclosed between the graph line and the time axis.

**Explanation:** Uniform acceleration results in a velocity-time graph that is a straight line, indicating a constant rate of change of velocity.

**Explanation:** A line sloping upward on a velocity-time graph indicates that the object’s speed is increasing over time.

**Explanation:** A negative slope on a velocity-time graph indicates deceleration, where the object is slowing down over time.

**Explanation:** Varying velocity results in a velocity-time graph that is curved, indicating changes in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity from a position-time graph is determined by finding the slope of the tangent to the curve at the desired point.

**Explanation:** For a straight line on a position-time graph, instantaneous velocity is found by determining the slope of the line, which represents the constant velocity of the car.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity in a velocity-time graph is found by determining the slope of the curve at the desired point, which represents the rate of change of velocity at that instant.

**Explanation:** For changing velocity, instantaneous velocity can be approximated by calculating the average velocity over a very short interval of time.

**Explanation:** ‘Instantaneous’ in the context of velocity refers to the velocity of an object at an exact moment or instant in time.

**Explanation:** At the highest point of its motion, the ball momentarily stops before descending. Therefore, its instantaneous velocity at that point is 0 m/s.

**Explanation:** Average velocity is the total displacement divided by the total time taken, whereas instantaneous velocity is the velocity at a particular instant.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity from a position-time graph is found by determining the slope of the curve at the desired point, representing the velocity at that specific time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity from a velocity-time graph is determined by finding the slope of the tangent to the curve at the desired point, indicating the rate of change of velocity at that instant.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous velocity at any moment can be found by determining the velocity at that specific time instant.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

**Explanation:** Acceleration can be calculated by dividing the change in velocity (final velocity – initial velocity) by the total time taken.

**Explanation:** Acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (30 m/s – 10 m/s) / 5 s = 20 m/s / 5 s = 6 m/s².

**Explanation:** Acceleration measures how quickly the velocity of an object changes over time.

**Explanation:** Negative acceleration (deceleration) indicates a decrease in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** Acceleration occurs when an object changes its velocity, either by speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction.

**Explanation:** Acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (30 m/s – 20 m/s) / 4 s = 10 m/s / 4 s = 2.5 m/s².

**Explanation:** Acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (10 m/s – 30 m/s) / 5 s = -20 m/s / 5 s = -4 m/s². Since it is deceleration, the acceleration is negative.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is the rate at which an object’s velocity changes over time.

**Explanation:** Velocity = Acceleration × Time = 20 m/s² × 10 s = 200 m/s.

**Explanation:** Positive acceleration indicates that the velocity of an object is increasing over time.

**Explanation:** When the velocity of an object increases over time, it experiences positive acceleration.

**Explanation:** Negative acceleration (deceleration) indicates that the velocity of an object is decreasing over time.

**Explanation:** When the velocity of an object decreases over time, it experiences negative acceleration.

**Explanation:** Zero acceleration occurs when the velocity of an object remains constant over time.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is negative when the object is slowing down or decelerating, such as a ball rolling downhill against gravity.

**Explanation:** When the velocity of an object increases, even if it is negative, over time, it experiences positive acceleration.

**Explanation:** Positive acceleration describes a situation where the velocity of an object is increasing over time.

**Explanation:** Constant velocity means there is no change in velocity over time, hence zero acceleration.

**Explanation:** Constant velocity (including zero velocity change) means there is no acceleration.

**Explanation:** Average acceleration is calculated over a longer interval of time, representing the overall change in velocity.

**Explanation:** Average acceleration can be calculated by dividing the change in velocity by the total time taken.

**Explanation:** Average acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (30 m/s – 10 m/s) / 5 s = 20 m/s / 5 s = 4 m/s².

**Explanation:** Instantaneous acceleration represents the rate of change of velocity at an exact moment or instant in time.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous acceleration from a velocity-time graph is determined by finding the slope of the tangent to the curve at the desired point.

**Explanation:** Average acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (30 m/s – 20 m/s) / 4 s = 10 m/s / 4 s = 2.5 m/s².

**Explanation:** Average acceleration is zero when an object’s velocity remains constant over time.

**Explanation:** Average acceleration = (Change in velocity) / (Time taken) = (10 m/s – 30 m/s) / 5 s = -20 m/s / 5 s = -4 m/s².

**Explanation:** Velocity = Acceleration × Time = 20 m/s² × 10 s = 200 m/s.

**Explanation:** Instantaneous acceleration is zero when an object maintains a constant velocity, indicating no change in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** Acceleration on a velocity-time graph is represented by the slope of the tangent to the curve at any point, indicating the rate of change of velocity.

**Explanation:** A straight line on a velocity-time graph indicates constant acceleration, where velocity changes uniformly over time.

**Explanation:** A horizontal velocity-time graph indicates zero acceleration, meaning the velocity remains constant over time.

**Explanation:** The steepness (slope) of a velocity-time graph indicates the magnitude of acceleration. Greater steepness implies greater acceleration.

**Explanation:** A downward sloping line on a velocity-time graph indicates negative acceleration (deceleration), where velocity decreases over time.

**Explanation:** An upward curve on a velocity-time graph suggests increasing acceleration, where velocity increases at an increasing rate.

**Explanation:** Acceleration on a displacement-time graph is represented by the slope of the chord between two points, indicating the change in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** A curved line on a velocity-time graph indicates variable acceleration, where the rate of change of velocity is not constant over time.

**Explanation:** A vertical velocity-time graph implies infinite acceleration, where velocity changes instantaneously over time.

**Explanation:** A velocity-time graph shows negative acceleration (deceleration) when the slope of the graph is downward, indicating a decrease in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** Acceleration can be in the same direction as velocity (for speeding up) or opposite direction (for slowing down).

**Explanation:** Maximum positive acceleration occurs when the velocity of an object is increasing at the fastest rate.

**Explanation:** Acceleration is zero when the velocity of an object remains constant.

**Explanation:** When acceleration and velocity have opposite signs, the object is decelerating or slowing down.

**Explanation:** Velocity and acceleration are independent quantities. Acceleration affects the change in velocity but does not determine the velocity directly.

**Explanation:** Negative acceleration with positive velocity indicates the object is slowing down.

**Explanation:** Maximum negative acceleration occurs when the velocity of an object is decreasing at the fastest rate.

**Explanation:** Zero acceleration means there is no change in velocity over time.

**Explanation:** Constant acceleration means the velocity of the object changes uniformly over time.

**Explanation:** Negative velocity with positive acceleration indicates the object is moving in the negative direction and its speed is increasing.

**Explanation:** This equation relates displacement \( s \), initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** This equation relates final velocity \( v \), initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and displacement \( s \).

**Explanation:** This equation calculates displacement \( s \) when initial velocity \( u \), final velocity \( v \), and time \( t \) are given.

**Explanation:** This equation gives the final velocity \( v \) in terms of initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** This equation relates displacement \( s \), initial velocity \( u \), final velocity \( v \), and acceleration \( a \).

**Explanation:** This equation is derived by eliminating time \( t \) from the equations \( v = u + at \) and \( s = ut + \frac{1}{2}at^2 \).

**Explanation:** This equation represents the average velocity \( \bar{v} \) as the average of initial velocity \( u \) and final velocity \( v \).

**Explanation:** Displacement \( s \) can be found by multiplying average velocity \( \bar{v} \) and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** This equation calculates displacement \( s \) using initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** When an object starts from rest (initial velocity \( u = 0 \)) and accelerates uniformly, displacement \( s \) after time \( t \) can be found using this equation.

**Explanation:** This equation relates the final velocity \( v \), initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** When an object starts from rest (\( u = 0 \)), its initial velocity \( u \) can be found using this equation.

**Explanation:** \( v \) represents the final velocity in the equation \( v = u + at \).

**Explanation:** \( a \) represents acceleration in the equation \( v = u + at \).

**Explanation:** Positive acceleration with negative initial velocity means the object is speeding up, hence \( v \) will be positive.

**Explanation:** The equation \( v = u + at \) directly calculates the final velocity \( v \) of an object.

**Explanation:** Starting from rest (\( u = 0 \)) and accelerating uniformly means the final velocity \( v \) increases over time.

**Explanation:** Rearranging \( v = u + at \) gives \( u = v – at \) when solving for initial velocity \( u \).

**Explanation:** Negative acceleration with positive initial velocity means the object is slowing down, hence \( v \) will be negative.

**Explanation:** If an object moves with uniform acceleration, the acceleration \( a \) remains constant throughout its motion.

**Explanation:** This equation relates displacement \( s \), initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and time \( t \).

**Explanation:** When an object starts from rest (\( u = 0 \)), its displacement \( s \) can be found using this equation.

**Explanation:** \( s \) represents the final displacement in the equation \( s = ut + \frac{1}{2}at^2 \).

**Explanation:** \( a \) represents acceleration in the equation \( s = ut + \frac{1}{2}at^2 \).

**Explanation:** The equation \( s = ut + \frac{1}{2}at^2 \) directly calculates the displacement \( s \) of an object.

**Explanation:** Starting from rest (\( u = 0 \)) and accelerating uniformly means the displacement \( s \) increases over time.

**Explanation:** Rearranging \( s = ut + \frac{1}{2}at^2 \) gives \( u = \frac{2s}{t} – \frac{1}{2}at \) when solving for initial velocity \( u \).

**Explanation:** Positive acceleration with negative initial velocity means the object is moving forward, hence \( s \) will be positive.

**Explanation:** If an object moves with uniform acceleration, the acceleration \( a \) remains constant throughout its motion.

**Explanation:** Starting from rest (\( u = 0 \)) and decelerating uniformly means the displacement \( s \) decreases over time.

**Explanation:** This equation relates final velocity \( v \), initial velocity \( u \), acceleration \( a \), and displacement \( s \).

**Explanation:** When an object starts from rest (\( u = 0 \)), its final velocity \( v \) can be found using this equation.

**Explanation:** \( v \) represents the final velocity in the equation \( v^2 = u^2 + 2as \).

**Explanation:** \( a \) represents acceleration in the equation \( v^2 = u^2 + 2as \).

**Explanation:** The equation \( v^2 = u^2 + 2as \) directly calculates the final velocity \( v \) of an object.

**Explanation:** Starting from rest (\( u = 0 \)) and accelerating uniformly means the final velocity \( v \) increases over time.

**Explanation:** Rearranging \( v^2 = u^2 + 2as \) gives \( u = \sqrt{v^2 – 2as} \) when solving for initial velocity \( u \).

**Explanation:** Negative acceleration with positive initial velocity means the object is slowing down, hence \( v \) will be negative.

**Explanation:** If an object moves with uniform acceleration, the acceleration \( a \) remains constant throughout its motion.

**Explanation:** Starting from rest (\( u = 0 \)) and decelerating uniformly means the final velocity \( v \) decreases over time.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity refers to the velocity of an object as observed from another object or point that is considered stationary.

**Explanation:** The relative velocity between two objects moving towards each other is the difference between their velocities.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is defined with respect to a frame of reference that is considered stationary.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is calculated as the difference between the velocities of the two objects. Here, it is \( 60 \text{ km/h} – 40 \text{ km/h} = 20 \text{ km/h} \) westward.

**Explanation:** The boat’s velocity relative to the river bank is the vector sum of its velocity and the river current’s velocity, calculated using the Pythagorean theorem.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity helps in understanding how objects move relative to each other, which is crucial in physics and practical scenarios.

**Explanation:** When two objects move in the same direction, the difference between their velocities decreases, hence decreasing relative velocity.

**Explanation:** If two objects have the same velocity, their relative velocity is zero because there is no relative motion between them.

**Explanation:** A stationary observer has zero relative velocity with respect to a moving object, as there is no motion relative to the stationary observer.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is most significant when two objects are moving towards each other because it determines their approach speed relative to each other.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity in different frames of reference refers to the velocity observed from a frame that is in motion relative to another frame.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity between two objects moving in the same direction is the difference in their velocities. Here, it’s \( 60 \text{ km/h} – 40 \text{ km/h} = 20 \text{ km/h} \).

**Explanation:** Relative velocity between two moving objects is the difference in their velocities. Here, it’s \( 10 \text{ m/s} + 8 \text{ m/s} = 18 \text{ m/s} \) south.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity provides information about how fast objects are moving towards or away from each other from different frames of reference.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity between two objects moving towards each other is the absolute difference between their velocities.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is zero when two objects move in opposite directions with the same speed.

**Explanation:** Absolute velocity is the velocity of an object measured with respect to a fixed point, while relative velocity depends on the relative motion between objects.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity helps in calculating the approach speed between vehicles or objects, crucial for avoiding collisions in navigation and traffic management.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is the vector difference between the velocities of the bird and the airplane. Here, it’s \( 300 \text{ m/s} – 20 \text{ m/s} = 280 \text{ m/s} \) south.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity changes direction depending on whether the objects are moving towards each other or in opposite directions.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity is calculated as the difference in velocities when one object overtakes another. Here, it’s \( 60 \text{ km/h} – 25 \text{ km/h} = 35 \text{ km/h} \).

**Explanation:** Relative velocity in a river-boat problem involves vector addition of boat velocity relative to water and river velocity. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(5 \text{ m/s})^2 + (8 \text{ m/s})^2} \) east-north.

**Explanation:** Resultant velocity in the presence of a tailwind is calculated using vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(500 \text{ km/h})^2 + (100 \text{ km/h})^2} \) north-east.

**Explanation:** Relative velocity between the fielder and the ball is found by vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(4 \text{ m/s})^2 + (20 \text{ m/s})^2} \) north-east.

**Explanation:** The swimmer’s velocity relative to the ground involves vector addition of swimmer’s velocity relative to water and river velocity. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(4 \text{ m/s})^2 + (2 \text{ m/s})^2} \) north.

**Explanation:** Resultant velocity in the presence of a crosswind is calculated using vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(30 \text{ m/s})^2 + (10 \text{ m/s})^2} \) east-north.

**Explanation:** The boat’s velocity relative to the ground involves vector addition of boat velocity relative to water and river velocity. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(15 \text{ m/s})^2 + (5 \text{ m/s})^2} \) north-east.

**Explanation:** Resultant velocity of the ball in the presence of wind is calculated using vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(20 \text{ m/s})^2 + (5 \text{ m/s})^2} \) north-west.

**Explanation:** Resultant velocity of the cyclist in the presence of wind is calculated using vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(15 \text{ km/h})^2 + (10 \text{ km/h})^2} \) north-east.

**Explanation:** Resultant velocity of the spaceship in the presence of a tailwind is calculated using vector addition. Here, it’s \( \sqrt{(2000 \text{ km/h})^2 + (500 \text{ km/h})^2} \) north-east.