**Explanation:** The unit for this type of earthwork is square meters (sq m), which is used to measure the horizontal area of excavation. In such scenarios, where the depth does not surpass 30 cm, the focus is on the ground surface being excavated.

**Explanation:** Concrete work in Reinforced Concrete Construction (R.C.C.) is measured in cubic meters (cu m). This measurement accounts for the volume of concrete used, taking into consideration both length, width, and depth dimensions.

**Explanation:** Woodwork, such as in door and window frames or structural elements like rafters and trusses, is quantified in cubic meters (cu m). This measurement signifies the three-dimensional volume of the wood used.

**Explanation:** The unit for measuring beading provided in door and window frames, rafters, etc., is meters (m). This measurement corresponds to the linear length of the beading used in these structural elements.

**Explanation:** Steel works in trusses and their parts are measured in quintals, representing the weight of the steel used. This unit reflects the mass of the material involved in the construction of these structural elements.

**Explanation:** Electric wiring or electrification work, such as for lights, fans, and plug points, is measured in points. Each point corresponds to a specific electrical outlet or connection, and this unit helps quantify the extent of wiring needed for these installations.

**Explanation:** The estimate for electric wiring, including fans, lights, and plug points, is made in terms of the total load at the main in kilowatts (kW). This measurement considers the electrical power requirements of the entire system.

**Explanation:** The unit of payment for blasting rock, including stacking, is cubic meters (cu m). This measurement accounts for the volume of the rock that is blasted and subsequently stacked.

**Explanation:** The unit of payment for roadside brick edging to increase pavement width is square meters (sq m). This measurement reflects the horizontal area covered by the brick edging.

**Explanation:** Partition walls are generally measured in square meters (sq m), representing the surface area covered by the partition.

**Explanation:** The unit of payment for excavating trenches for pipes, cables, etc., up to 1.5 meters depth in ordinary rock/hard rock is meters (metre). This measurement considers the linear distance of the excavation.

**Explanation:** The unit of payment for A.C. sheet roofing is square meters (sq m), representing the surface area covered by the roofing sheets.

**Explanation:** The unit of payment for fixing glass panes or cleaning is in numbers. This measurement reflects the count of glass panes installed or cleaned.

**Explanation:** The items of earthwork such as setting out of work, site clearance, and dead man are not measured separately. Instead, they are often considered as part of the overall project scope.

**Explanation:** All of the statements are correct. Pointing, plastering, and glazing are typically measured in square meters (sq m), representing the area covered by these activities.

^{3}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The quantity of soiling, representing the deposition of unwanted materials on surfaces during construction, is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement considers the horizontal area affected by soiling, providing a comprehensive assessment of the surface coverage.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of honeycomb walls is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement takes into account the surface area covered by the distinctive honeycomb pattern within the walls, offering an accurate representation of the affected area.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of wood required for the shutters of doors and windows is calculated in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement considers the surface area covered by the shutters, providing a detailed estimate of the material needed.

^{3}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The unit of measurement for a 10 cm thick wall is square meters (m^{2}). This measurement accounts for the surface area covered by the wall, taking into consideration its thickness and providing an indication of the extent of the constructed wall.

^{3}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The quantity of expansion joints in buildings is worked out in meters (m). This measurement represents the linear extent of the expansion joint, providing information about the length of the joint within the structure.

**Explanation:** The explosive for blasting is typically expressed in terms of kilograms (kg). This unit indicates the weight of the explosive material used in the blasting process, serving as a crucial measure for safety and efficiency.

**Explanation:** The measurement of steel grills is taken in terms of weight, usually expressed in kilograms (kg). This measurement reflects the mass of the steel used in the construction of the grills, providing insights into the material quantity.

**Explanation:** One metric horsepower is equal to 0.736 kilowatts (kW) in the metric system. This conversion factor is essential for understanding and calculating power in different units.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of jafri is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement considers the surface area covered by jafri, providing a detailed assessment of the affected area.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The measurement of the railing of the staircase is taken in terms of running meters (rm). This unit accounts for the linear length of the railing, offering a comprehensive representation of the railing extent.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The unit of cribbing is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement considers the surface area covered by cribbing, providing a detailed assessment of the cribbing extent.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** Formwork is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement accounts for the surface area covered by the formwork, providing insights into the extent of formwork required for construction.

**Explanation:** Brickwork is measured in square meters (sq. m.) for various cases, including honeycomb brickwork, brick flat soling, and half brick walls. This unit considers the surface area covered by the brickwork, offering a comprehensive measurement.

^{3}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The quantity of damp proof course (D.P.C) is worked out in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement accounts for the surface area covered by the damp proof course, providing an accurate representation of the affected area.

^{2}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The unit of brickwork having 1⁄2 brick thickness is measured in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement accounts for the surface area covered by the brickwork, considering its thickness and providing a detailed representation.

^{3}

^{2}

**Explanation:** Scaffolding is calculated in square meters (m^{2}). This measurement considers the surface area covered by the scaffolding structure, providing an estimate of the scaffolding material required for construction.

**Explanation:** For brick construction, the lime-sand mortar mix is typically in the ratio of 1:3 (one part lime to three parts sand). This mixture is commonly used for bonding bricks in masonry work.

**Explanation:** An estimate in construction refers to the probable cost arrived at before the commencement of the structure. It involves a detailed calculation of the expected expenses based on various factors.

**Explanation:** The most correct estimate is the detailed estimate. This type of estimate provides a comprehensive breakdown of costs for various components of construction, offering a detailed and accurate assessment of the total project cost.

**Explanation:** The evaluation of a building is often done based on the plinth area rate. This rate considers the cost per square meter of the built-up area and is a common method for estimating the value of a building.

**Explanation:** The center line method is specially adopted for estimating circular, hexagonal, and octagonal buildings. This method involves measuring along the center line of the structure for accurate calculations.

**Explanation:** In the long and short wall method, the length of the long wall is the center-to-center space between walls plus half of the breadth of the wall on each side. This method is used for accurate measurement in building estimation.

**Explanation:** Payment for steel is typically done per metric ton (MT). This unit of measurement accounts for the weight of the steel supplied for construction.

**Explanation:** The item rate contract normally gives the maximum value of the project. In this type of contract, each item of work is priced separately, providing a detailed breakdown of costs for different components.

^{3}of 1:2:4 concrete is

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The volume of coarse aggregate (C.A.) required to make 100 m^{3} of 1:2:4 concrete is 87 m^{3}. This ratio represents the proportions of cement, sand, and coarse aggregate in the concrete mix.

^{3}RCC having Mm

_{20}(1:1.5:3).

^{3}

**Explanation:** The amount of cement required for 10 m^{3} of RCC with Mm_{20} (1:1.5:3) is 3975 kg, 79.54 bags, or 2.76 m^{3}. These values represent different units of measurement for the quantity of cement needed in the concrete mix.

**Explanation:** The amount of cement required per cubic meter for the mix (1:3:6) is 4.3 bags. This ratio represents the proportions of cement, sand, and coarse aggregate in the concrete mix.

**Explanation:** Of the total estimated cost of a building, the cost of electrification usually accounts for approximately 8%. This percentage represents the proportion of the overall budget allocated for electrical work.

^{2}) and unit weight (kg/m) of 16 mm steel bar is respectively

**Explanation:** The cross-sectional area (c/s area) of a 16 mm steel bar is 201 mm^{2}, and its unit weight is 1.58 kg/m. These values provide information about the dimensions and weight of the steel bar.

**Explanation:** The compound amount of Rs. 100 in 4 years at a 4% interest rate is Rs.117. This calculation takes into account compound interest, which is the interest on both the principal amount and the accumulated interest from previous periods.

^{3}plaster in 1:5 ratio

**Explanation:** The quantity of cement required for 1 m^{3} plaster in a 1:5 ratio is 310 kg. This ratio represents the proportion of cement to other materials in the plaster mix.

^{3}mortar (1:6) plaster

**Explanation:** The amount of cement required for 1 m^{3} mortar in a 1:6 ratio for plaster is 265 kg. This ratio indicates the proportion of cement to sand in the mortar mix.

**Explanation:** The actual weight of cement bags is more in the case of paper bags. Different bag materials may have varying weights, and paper bags are generally heavier compared to other materials.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** In the detailed estimate, the areas are typically worked out to the nearest 0.01 square meters for precise calculations.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** In the detailed estimate, the volumes are usually worked out to the nearest 0.01 cubic meters for accurate measurements.

**Explanation:** In the center line method, for cross walls, deductions from the center line length at each junction should be half the breadth. This ensures accurate measurements in volume calculations.

**Explanation:** The unit rate of items written by the contractor in Bill of Quantities (BOQ) is preferred in alphabetical form for clarity and consistency.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The plinth area of the building is calculated by multiplying the centerline dimensions (including wall thickness) of the outer walls. In this case, it is 9.7m x 14.7m, resulting in a plinth area of 150m^{2}.

**Explanation:** In unsewered areas, an additional provision for a septic tank is typically around 3 to 4% of the building cost to account for the construction and installation of the septic tank.

**Explanation:** The capacity of a flushing cistern is normally in the range of 12 to 15 litres. This volume ensures an adequate amount of water for flushing in sanitary fixtures.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The volume of cement required to prepare 100 cubic meters of 1:2:4 concrete is 21m^{3}. This ratio represents the proportions of cement, sand, and coarse aggregate in the concrete mix.

**Explanation:** During the calculation of Reinforced Concrete (RCC), typically, no deduction is made from the total steel quantity.

**Explanation:** Arranging the specific weights in increasing order: Wood (W), Cement (C), Aggregate (A), and Steel (S).

**Explanation:** 1 Hectare (He) is equal to 19 Ropani, a unit of area measurement.

**Explanation:** 1 British gallon is equal to 4.546 litres.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** One hectare is equal to 10000 square meters. It is a metric unit of area commonly used for large land measurements.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** One hectare-meter represents a volume of 10000 cubic meters. This unit is often used in the context of water storage or irrigation.

**Explanation:** The weight of a 10 mm diameter mild steel rod per meter length is 0.62 kg. This information is crucial for construction projects where precise material quantities are essential.

**Explanation:** One cubic meter is equivalent to 1 kilo-liter. The prefix “kilo-” represents a factor of 1000, so one kilo-liter is equal to 1000 liters. Since one cubic meter is also equal to 1000 liters, it follows that one cubic meter is equal to one kilo-liter.

**Explanation:** The centre line method is considered easier for estimating material quantities. It involves calculating volumes based on the center lines of walls, providing a straightforward approach.

**Explanation:** Lime concrete in the foundation should be left wet for a minimum of 7 days without constructing masonry over it. This ensures proper curing and strength development.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The carpet area is calculated by subtracting the area of the walls from the total area. In this case, it is (9.7m x 14.7m) – [(9.7m + 14.7m) x 0.30m] = 135.36 m^{2}.

^{3}of brickwork in 1:6 cement mortar is approximately equal to

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The volume of cement required for 10 m^{3} of brickwork in 1:6 cement mortar is approximately 3/7 m^{3}. This ratio represents the proportions of cement to sand in the mortar mix.

**Explanation:** Contractor profit is typically added to rate analysis. Rate analysis involves determining the rates for various construction activities, and profit is an essential component of these rates.

**Explanation:** The main target of a contractor is to earn more profit while efficiently completing the construction work.

**Explanation:** The chairman of the material rate fixation committee in the district is the Chief District Officer (CDO).

**Explanation:** Rate analysis prepared by the ministry of transport and work includes the cost of labour, material, and equipment for various construction activities.

**Explanation:** Full payment of the contractor is typically done after the completion of construction and the maintenance period.

^{3}of all types of 1 soil

**Explanation:** As per norms, 8 unskilled man-days are required to excavate 12 m^{3} of all types of soil.

**Explanation:** For a sanitary pipeline of 3 m length, one skilled laborer is typically required for installation.

**Explanation:** According to the norms, one porter can carry a weight of 40 kg up to a distance of 4 kosh.

^{2}area as per norms (one coat)

**Explanation:** As per norms, 30 kg of Snowcem paint is required for one coat on a 100 m^{2} area.

^{3}are

**Explanation:** According to the norms, for brick masonry with cement mortar of 5 m^{3}, 6 skilled man-days and 12 unskilled man-days are required.

^{2}are

**Explanation:** As per the norms, for pointing with cement mortar (1:3) of 100 m^{2}, 10 skilled man-days and 12 unskilled man-days are required.

^{2}are

**Explanation:** According to the norms, for plaster with cement mortar of 10 m^{2}, 10 skilled man-days and 12 unskilled man-days are required.

^{3}are

**Explanation:** For stone masonry in the foundation with cement mortar of 5 m^{3}, 7 skilled man-days and 14 unskilled man-days are required as per the norms.

**Explanation:** According to the norms, for cutting, bending, placing, etc., all complete for one MT of reinforcements, 4 skilled man-days and 9 unskilled man-days are required.

^{3}are

**Explanation:** For PCC/RCC in foundation for 5 m^{3}, 3 skilled man-days and 30 unskilled man-days are required as per the norms.

**Explanation:** The estimated quantity of cement required in cement mortar (1:6) per cubic meter is 5.4 bags.

**Explanation:** The rate of an item of work depends on specifications of works, specifications of materials, and the method of construction.

**Explanation:** Specifications provide information about the nature of works, quality of materials, and types of workmanship.

**Explanation:** Dimensions are typically provided in drawings, not in specifications.

**Explanation:** As per norms prepared by the Department of Roads (DoR), the number of skilled and unskilled manpower required for the fabrication of one metric ton of steel is 4 skilled and 9 unskilled.

**Explanation:** According to the ISI method of measurement, the order is length, breadth, and height.

^{2}if the thickness of the wall is

**Explanation:** Brick walls are measured in square meters (m^{2}) if the thickness of the wall is 10 cm.

**Explanation:** In the specification of earthwork in foundation trenches, drains, etc., the lift ordinarily specified is 1.5 m.

**Explanation:** In the specification of earthwork in foundation trenches, drains, etc., the lead specified is 30 m (IS code).

**Explanation:** The actual size of the modular brick, as per IS Code, is 19cm x 9cm x 9cm.

^{3}of masonry (as per IS Code) is

**Explanation:** The number of standard modular bricks required to make 1 m^{3} of masonry, as per IS Code, is 500.

**Explanation:** The nominal lead and lift allowed for the earthwork in the excavations of the foundations are 30 m and 1.5 m.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** No deduction is made in the masonry for the opening if the area of the opening does not exceed 0.10 m^{2}.

**Explanation:** When not specified, the volume of steel in R.C.C work is taken as 0.6% to 1.0% of R.C.C. volume.

**Explanation:** The thickness of slabs and beams must be measured to the nearest 0.005 m.

**Explanation:** The portion that is wrongly excavated by the contractor is to be filled with concrete as specified.

**Explanation:** In the analysis of rates, 1 1/2% of the total cost is provided towards water charges.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The density of cement is generally taken as 1440 kg/m^{3}.

**Explanation:** The weight of cement in one bag is 50 kg.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The volume of cement in one bag is approximately 0.0347 m^{3}.

**Explanation:** Steel formwork can be used up to about 50 times.

^{2}

**Explanation:** In the estimation of plastering surface, deductions are not made for ends of beams, end of rafters, and small openings up to 0.5 m^{2}.

**Explanation:** In the case of a roof truss made of steel, rivets, bolts, nuts, etc., typically account for about 5% of the total.

**Explanation:** When not specified, the number of holdfasts for a door is usually taken as 6.

**Explanation:** The minimum number of hinges provided in a door and window shutter should be 3 for doors and 2 for windows.

**Explanation:** The number of corrugations in a galvanized corrugated sheet is usually 10.

**Explanation:** The number of corrugations in an asbestos cement sheet is usually 7.

**Explanation:** The standard width of the galvanized iron sheet is 32″.

**Explanation:** The standard width of an asbestos cement corrugated sheet is 1.05 m.

**Explanation:** The minimum side lap required for asbestos cement sheets is 15 cm.

**Explanation:** End lap provided in asbestos cement sheets is equal to 15 cm.

**Explanation:** The minimum space left from the property line (In Kathmandu valley) for the provision of window/door is 5 ft.

**Explanation:** The minimum size of the pipe connected to the septic tank is 100 mm.

**Explanation:** The life of teak wood doors and windows is usually taken to be 40 years.

**Explanation:** Bricks generally absorb more heat than stone.

**Explanation:** Whenever color washing on A.C. corrugated sheets is done, in the estimation, the plan area of the sheets is increased by 20%.

**Explanation:** In the case of steel rolling shutters, for the estimation of the painted area, the plain area is multiplied by 1 1/4.

**Explanation:** The plain area of the semi-corrugated asbestos sheet is increased by 10% to account for corrugation during whitewashing.

**Explanation:** Specifications for holdfasts are given in terms of weight.

**Explanation:** If valuable properties are found during excavation, they become the property of the government.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The volume of sand a normal truck can carry per trip is approximately 3-5 m^{3}.

**Explanation:** The thickness of a 25 gauge sheet is less than 1 mm.

**Explanation:** The concealed faces of the frames of doors and windows are painted with two coats of the same enamel paint applied to the rest of the frame.

**Explanation:** The area of the segmental portion of an arch with span I and rise r is approximately given by 2/3 lr.

**Explanation:** 32 mm is not a common size of reinforcement bars.

**Explanation:** The approximate weight of one cubic meter of mild steel is 7850 kg.

**Explanation:** The approximate weight of 1 cubic meter of sand is 1600 kg.

**Explanation:** The technique of finding the fair price of an existing building or property is known as valuation.

**Explanation:** In the analysis of rates, the profit and overhead for the contractor are generally taken as 15%.

**Explanation:** Contractor tax is typically 1.5%.

**Explanation:** The appropriate cost to the complete labor as a percentage of the total cost of the building is 25%.

^{2}, and it includes a rear courtyard of 5m x 4m. If the prevailing plinth area rate for a similar building is Rs.1250/m

^{2}, what is its cost?

**Explanation:** The cost of the building is calculated by multiplying the covered area by the plinth area rate: 150m^{2} x Rs.1250/m^{2} = Rs. 1,87,500.

**Explanation:** The approximate cost of a residential building per square foot in Kathmandu is in the range of Rs.2500-3000.

**Explanation:** Demolition refers to breaking up the structure.

**Explanation:** Dismantle means breaking up the structure with care.

**Explanation:** The useful part of the livable area of a building is known as the carpet area.

**Explanation:** The plinth area must be greater at any floor of a building.

**Explanation:** Tenders contain notice, item of work, and estimated cost, but they do not contain item rate.

**Explanation:** The amount of money deposited along with the submission of tender is known as earnest money.

**Explanation:** A document containing a detailed description of all types of work with their current rates is called a schedule of rates.

**Explanation:** A document showing the list of quantity of various items of works required for the completion of any project is known as a schedule of quantity.

**Explanation:** Working out the exact quantities of various items of work is known as quantity surveying.

**Explanation:** The essential requirements to prepare a good estimate include a fully dimensioned drawing to scale, detailed specifications, and a schedule of rates.

**Explanation:** A layer of dry bricks put below the foundation concrete, in the case of soft soils, is called soling.

**Explanation:** The expenses of items that do not come under any regular head of items and the cost of unforeseen items are called contingencies.

**Explanation:** The value of the property or structures becomes less by its becoming out of date in style is known as obsolescence.

**Explanation:** The value of the property (without being disassembled) at the end of the useful life period is known as salvage value.

**Explanation:** The annual periodic payments made for the repayment of the capital invested are known as annuity.

**Explanation:** The net annual letting out value of a property, obtained after deducting the amount of yearly repairs from the gross income, is known as rateable value.

**Explanation:** The value shown in the account book after allowing necessary depreciation is known as book value.

**Explanation:** The gradual accumulation of amounts by way of annual periodic deposits, meant for the replacement of the structure at the end of its useful life period, is known as a sinking fund.

**Explanation:** The value of the dismantled material less the cost of dismantling is called scrap value.

**Explanation:** A fixed stipulated sum of penalty payable by the contractor having no relationship with real damage is known as liquidated damages.

**Explanation:** Liquidated damage is directly related to the terms and conditions specified in the contract.

**Explanation:** When engineering departments undertake the works of other departments, the amount charged toward design, supervision, and execution, etc., is called centage charge.

**Explanation:** Work-charged establishment is generally around 1.5%.

**Explanation:** Information that can’t be included in drawings is conveyed to the estimator through specifications.

**Explanation:** Workman’s compensation insurances, etc., are known as job overhead.

**Explanation:** Stone arch work typically involves more intricate detailing and is likely to have a lower rate of work turned per mason per day.

**Explanation:** Traveling Express is considered as general overhead.

^{2}with a depth not exceeding 30 cm are termed as

**Explanation:** The excavation exceeding 1.5 m in width and area 10 m^{2} with a depth not exceeding 30 cm is termed as surface dressing.

**Explanation:** Indicating works left in excavated trenches to facilitate the measurement of borrow pits are known as tell-tael.

**Explanation:** When excavating soil, leaving some portion undisturbed without any disturbance is referred to as “Tell-tale,” “Motam,” or “Dead man.” All these terms indicate the practice of not disturbing certain sections during excavation.

**Explanation:** In a cost-plus-percentage contract, the contractor is paid the actual cost of construction along with a predetermined percentage of profit. This type of contract provides transparency regarding the actual expenses and allows the contractor to earn a percentage profit on top.

**Explanation:** When the payment of annuity starts after a certain number of years in the future, it is referred to as a “Debitable agency.” This delayed payment structure distinguishes it from immediate annuities.

**Explanation:** A deferred annuity is one in which the payment of annuity begins after a certain period or years from the date of the contract. It provides for future periodic payments, making it a deferred financial arrangement.

**Explanation:** The salvage value of a structure is typically considered more than its scrap value. Salvage value is the estimated residual value of an asset at the end of its useful life, considering it has not been dismantled. It represents the value that can be recovered from the structure.

**Explanation:** The quantity of work accomplished by a skilled laborer in a day is referred to as “Task work.” It measures the daily output of a skilled worker on a specific task or item of work.

**Explanation:** A document that provides a detailed account of the work done or materials supplied, along with their quantities and particulars, is known as a “Bill.” It serves as a comprehensive record for financial transactions related to the project.

**Explanation:** VAT stands for “Value-Added Tax.” It is a consumption tax added to the value of goods or services at each stage of production or distribution, reflecting the value added at each stage.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of earthwork in 1 km length of road, following a given section, is estimated to be 15000 cubic meters.

**Explanation:** The unit of measurement for PVC pipe used in water supply pipelines is “Meter,” representing the length of the pipe.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The area of the given figure, with dimensions in meters, is calculated to be 375 square meters.

**Explanation:** Rate analysis considers multiple factors, including the quantity and quality of materials, as well as the rates of materials. All these factors are crucial for determining the overall cost of a construction project.

^{3}of 1:2:4 concrete is

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** To produce 100 cubic meters of 1:2:4 concrete, the volume of cement required is 22 cubic meters.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The area of the quadrilateral, with dimensions in meters, is calculated to be 2450 square meters.

**Explanation:** Carpet area, in real estate, excludes the area of verandahs, corridors, bathrooms, lavatories, kitchens, and pantries. It specifically refers to the net usable floor area within the walls of a property.

**Explanation:** Specifications serve as the foundation for carrying out engineering works, ensuring the quality of construction, and forming the basis for contract execution. They provide detailed information about the materials, workmanship, and standards to be followed.

**Explanation:** Inflation on material and wages is not typically considered while preparing item rate estimates. Item rate estimates focus on specific unit rates of materials, labor, equipment, and tools required for the construction project.

**Explanation:** The fundamental units in the metric system are the meter (length), kilogram (mass), and second (time).

**Explanation:** Plinth area estimate is commonly used for estimating the cost of constructing buildings. It provides an approximate estimation based on the total floor area at the plinth level.

**Explanation:** A tender is a notice inviting bids from contractors who are interested in executing specific works. It is not a written offer or an enforceable agreement.

**Explanation:** In detailed measurement, the sequence of dimensions is typically written as Length x Breadth x Height.

**Explanation:** The Bill of Quantities is prepared based on estimated quantities of materials, labor, and other resources required for a construction project.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of cement required for plastering is calculated based on the specified thickness and the area of the new brickwork.

**Explanation:** Petty work refers to types of work that involve the use of labor without significant material, equipment, etc. It is often minor and doesn’t require extensive resources.

**Explanation:** To estimate the painting area for iron grillwork, it is common to use a factor of 1.25 times the area of the opening between the door/window frame.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** The actual area of land can be calculated by multiplying the measured area on the map by the square of the scale factor (1:500).

**Explanation:** The volume of concrete for a reinforced concrete isolated sloped footing is calculated using the provided formula.

^{2}is:

**Explanation:** The total cost is calculated by multiplying the painting rate per square meter by the surface area to be painted.

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

^{2}

**Explanation:** Deductions in masonry for openings are typically not made if the area of the opening is small, such as not exceeding 0.1 square meters.

**Explanation:** Valuation involves determining the present value of a property based on its actual characteristics and market conditions. It aims to establish a realistic and fair value for the property.

**Explanation:** A supplementary estimate is prepared when additional works are added to the original project scope. This could be due to unforeseen circumstances, changes in design, or other factors not initially considered. It helps in incorporating new elements and estimating the associated costs.

**Explanation:** Rate analysis involves calculating the rates for materials, labor, and equipment required for a unit of work. It includes overhead costs and provides a basis for determining the total cost, including profit, for the contractor.

**Explanation:** The long wall and short wall method involve measuring the quantity of construction materials by considering the lengths from out to out and in to in, regardless of the total center line of the walls. It accommodates variations in wall thickness.

**Explanation:** An estimate encompasses both the calculation of quantities required for construction and the computation of expected expenditures. It provides a comprehensive outlook on the resources needed for a construction project.

**Explanation:** Specifications define the quality of materials, the measurement system, and the working procedures for construction projects. It ensures a standardized approach to construction and sets expectations for the materials used.

**Explanation:** The estimate requires consideration of drawings, specifications, and rates. Drawings provide the visual representation, specifications define the quality and procedures, and rates determine the cost of materials and labor.

**Explanation:** Depreciation is generally not considered for the initial years of a building, especially in the first year. The initial period is when the value of the building is expected to remain relatively stable.

**Explanation:** The cost estimation for installation and electrification in small residential buildings is often based on a detailed estimate derived from service drawings that outline the electrical requirements.

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

^{3}

**Explanation:** The quantity of a wall is calculated by multiplying its length, width, and height. In this case, it is 6 m x 0.3 m x 3 m = 5.4 m^{3}.

**Explanation:** Illustrative sketches are typically not an essential part of general specifications for public works. Specifications focus on material details, work methodology, and measurement for payment.

**Explanation:** Specifications are necessary for any works, whether carried out by a user’s committee, through a muster roll, or by a contractor. They provide guidelines and standards for the execution of the work.

**Explanation:** Commercial banks often use the plinth area cost method for the valuation of buildings. It involves assessing the cost based on the total floor area at the plinth level.

**Explanation:** The plinth area of a building generally does not include the area of a cantilevered porch. The porch is considered separately in the overall assessment.

**Explanation:** The measurement of providing and assembling false work for the construction of an RCC superstructure is typically done in square meters, considering the surface area covered.

**Explanation:** The value of a property when it is put up for sale is referred to as its market value. It represents the amount that can be reasonably obtained in the open market.

**Explanation:** Illustrative sketches are generally not considered an essential part of the general specification of public works. The specification typically focuses on material details, work methodology, and the mode of measurement for payment.

^{3}is?

**Explanation:** The unit weight of reinforced concrete (R.C.C.) is approximately 2400 kg/m^{3}. This value can vary depending on the composition of the concrete mix.

**Explanation:** In CGI (Corrugated Galvanized Iron) sheet roofing, it is recommended that the overlap along the length of the sheet should not be less than two corrugations. This ensures proper weather resistance.

**Explanation:** The number of standard bricks in one cubic meter of masonry is approximately 500 bricks. This number may vary based on the size and thickness of the bricks used.

**Explanation:** According to the ISI (Indian Standards Institution) method of measurement, the correct order of sequence is length, breadth, height when expressing dimensions.

**Explanation:** Volume is measured correct to the nearest 0.01 cubic meters to ensure accuracy in quantity calculations.

**Explanation:** A revised estimate is typically prepared if the sanctioned estimate exceeds a certain percentage, often 5%, due to changes in the price level or other factors affecting costs.

**Explanation:** The order of booking dimensions, especially in construction and engineering, is commonly expressed as length, breadth, and height.

**Explanation:** The cost of laying gullies and intercepting traps includes setting and laying, bed concreting, and connection to drains. It encompasses all necessary components of the installation.

**Explanation:** Among the options provided, the most reliable estimate is the detailed estimate. It involves a thorough calculation of quantities and costs, providing a comprehensive and accurate assessment of the project’s financial requirements.